11 Types of Sports Adapted for People with Disability

Let’s list a list of 11 sports adapted for people with disabilities , The most outstanding being athletics, basketball, bocce and cycling.
At present there are many people with a disability or problem that does not allow them to participate in the conventional sports that exist.

What is adapted sport?
The adapted sport is understood according to Reina (2010)”like that sport modality that adapts to the collective of People with disabilities Or special health condition, either because they have made a series of adaptations and / or modifications to facilitate the practice of those, or because the very structure of the sport allows their practice.
For what we said above, we can point out that some sports have adapted their structure and rules depending on the group that will practice it.
On other occasions, a new modality has been created based on the characteristics of the disabled group that will play. An example could be basketball that was fully adapted to people with physical disabilities and currently can play it in a wheelchair (Pérez, 2012).

What is usually adapted or modified to constitute an adapted sport?
There are several adaptations or modifications that must be made in the sports that we know to be constituted as an adapted sport:
The rules or regulations must be modified from the outset, as people with disabilities, given their conditions, can not follow them properly.
On some occasions, we can not use the same material that is used in conventional sport. For example, when we want that sport to be played by people with sensory and visual disabilities. In these cases the material to be used will be sonorous so that they can locate where it is.
You will also have to make adaptations like technical-tactics, not forgetting the requirements of the sport that is being adapted.
Another important aspect is the sports facility which, in addition to the usual access adaptations, will also need to adapt to the sport that is going to be played inside it. Therefore, the game track will need some modifications not very expensive, such as highlighting the field lines.

What adapted sports exist?
As we know, there are now many types of sports adapted to each type of disability. Next, we will detail some, not because they are more important than the others, but because they are included in the paralympias (Moya, 2014).

1- Athletics
Athletics is one of the sports that are included in the Paralympic Games and has been one of the fastest evolving, involving blind, paraplegic and quadriplegic athletes, people with cerebral palsy and with Some amputated limb .
Some athletes compete even in a wheelchair, with prosthesis or with the help of a guide joined by a rope.
Athletics events can be divided into jumps competitions, pitches as well as pentathlon and marathon as well as races. So, as we can check it includes all Olympic tests except for hurdles, obstacles, as well as pole vault and hammer throw tests.
In the event that a disabled person uses a wheelchair, they will be designed with specific and light materials to be able to compete without problems of any kind.

2- Basketball wheelchair
This sport is adapted for people who have a physical disability, either because of amputation of a member, paraplegics, etc.
They are usually ruled by the same regulation as basketball, although with different adaptations such as that players must pass or throw the ball after pushing the chair twice.

3- Boccia
The origins of this sport similar to bocce, go back to Classic Greece. Although it is a very old sport, it is very popular in Nordic countries and is usually played in the summer season, being adapted for people with cerebral palsy.
If there is something to emphasize about this type of sport, it is that their tests are mixed. You can also play both individually and in groups.
It is played on a rectangular court in which the participants try to throw their balls as close as possible to a white one while they try to move rivals away, so it can be considered a game of tension and precision.

4- Cycling
It consists of both track and road tests and although relatively new, can be considered as one of the most popular Paralympics.
Their different types of tests are carried out in groups classified by the type of disability of the people who participate.
Groups may be blind, with cerebral palsy, visual impairment as well as people presenting Motor problems Or have any amputation.

5- Fencing
The fencing as it is known today dates back to the 19th century.
This type of sport is played with people who have a physical disability, so it will participate in a wheelchair with mechanisms that will allow the movement of the latter forward and back.
It can be considered as a combination of different skills like tactics, strength, technique and speed. There are different modalities as: sword, foil and saber.
The inclusion of this type of sport using the wheelchair in the Paralympic Games dates back to 1960 in the games that took place in the city of Rome.

6- Football 7
It has very few differences with conventional soccer.
People who often play this type of adapted sport have different degrees of cerebral palsy. The rules often differ little from the original game because they follow the rules of the International Federation of Football Associations (FIFA):
In this case, the teams are constituted by seven people instead of 11 counting with the goalkeeper.
You can use a single hand to perform the band serves. Unlike conventional sports, out-of-play games do not exist. The duration of the matches is usually somewhat shorter, with a duration of 30 minutes for each period.
Finally, another discrepancy is that players who form teams must have different levels of disability.

7- Goalball
It comes from countries like Germany and Austria. It is considered a team sport composed of three players and, like football, is played on a rectangular track in which there is a goal at each end.

Unlike this one will not use the feet to play, but the hand. It is practiced by people who have some kind of visual disability and the ball used is sonorous.
By allowing in Goalball the participation of people with different degrees of visual impairment and to guarantee conditions between blind and visually impaired; All players will wear a mask to cover their eyes.
Finally, it should be noted that for a correct development of the game you have to be silent and only allowed to applaud when some team has scored a goal.

8- Weightlifting
It is characterized by the rapidity with which it has spread all over the world. It is practiced by lifters amputees, affected by cerebral palsy, paraplegics…
When people are already selected to participate in this type of sport, they are usually divided according to their body weight instead of their injury in both the female and male categories. It consists of several modalities: powerlifting and weifhlifting.
This sport consists of being able to position the bar made up of dumbbells in the chest, then leave it without movement and raise it until the elbows are extended. Participants have three attempts each time they add weight and win who has been able to lift more pounds.

9- Judo
This sport is a martial art that requires participants to balance attack and defense. Paralympics are often practiced by people with visual disabilities. It varies from the conventional game in which in this case, players start seized by the lapels and the indications of the referee are sonorous.

10- Swimming
It is one of the most well-known sports among people with disabilities.
There are usually two groups: one for people with physical disabilities and another for people with visual disabilities. Paralympic swimming is practiced in different styles: back, breaststroke, butterfly and free. These modalities can be combined in the existing tests of style.
Know this article The benefits of swimming for health.

11- Archery
This type of sport is also prominent among people with disabilities. It is practiced by people who have physical disability and / or cerebral palsy.
It usually has two types: stand and wheelchair. Individual and team competitions are held in both men’s and women’s categories.
This type of Paralympic archery usually has the same conditions in terms of rules, procedures and distances as in those that are disputed in the Olympic Games.

What psychological and social benefits do you have?

Sport, like any recreational activity, has important Benefits for our daily lives . This can be very important for people with disabilities, because even today they have to overcome many barriers in their daily life and this can cause them some problems.
For this reason, sport can be a good option to escape from the problems that these people have in their daily life since besides clearing it can also strengthen their Body and your mind .
You can also Help self-improvement And to seek new goals to fulfill in the day to day strengthening their social life (Lagar, 2003).

Source: Life Persona